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For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC-accredited laboratories.Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1930s, AAS have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success.
There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses.Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of most sports.AAS use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application; and skin patches. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one-sixth is available in active form.It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U. In order to be sufficiently active when given by mouth, testosterone derivatives are alkylated at the 17α position, e.g. This modification reduces the liver's ability to break down these compounds before they reach the systemic circulation.Testosterone can be administered parenterally, but it has more irregular prolonged absorption time and greater activity in muscle in enanthate, undecanoate, or cypionate ester form.